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A currency peg is a policy in which a country’s government or central bank fixes the exchange rate of its currency to the value of another currency or a basket of currencies. The pegged rate is enforced by the country’s central bank, which will exchange currency at that rate.
Commonly, countries that participate in this practice prefer to peg their currency to the US dollar, as it is seen as a stable currency globally. There are also a few examples of a Euro peg, including the Danish krona, which made the decision not to adopt the Euro as its currency. Currency pegs can be temporary or long-term; for example, the CHF (Swiss franc) was pegged to the Euro between 2011-15.
Another well-known and often-discussed example of a currency peg is the connection between the Hong Kong Dollar (HKD) and the US Dollar (USD). Since 1983, the Hong Kong Monetary Authority (HKMA) has maintained a peg, allowing the HKD to trade within a narrow range of 7.75 to 7.85 to the USD. The HKMA commits to buying or selling HKD at this range to maintain the peg.
Implications of currency pegs.
There are potential challenges as well as the perceived advantages associated with currency pegs, These include:
A currency peg is a significant monetary tool that can bring stability but also comes with trade-offs and potential risks. It can affect everything from inflation to interest rates, trade balances, and investor behaviour. For traders, pegged currencies may limit opportunities compared to those of the general foreign exchange market pairs.
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